Though the aCovid-19 virus is hosted by bats, some particular subtype might affect other mammals too, including humans. In a direct manner the virus is contacted from infected birds, mostly household poultry but sometimes wild birds also can infect hunters, tribal people, etc. In an indirect manner the infection can enter the human system via food items contaminated with the virus, polluted water, objects, air, food, etc. by the bodily secretions or excretions of infected birds. The flu virus being airborne, the contamination within the air might be reasonably high, in cases of epidemic or pandemic proportions. Infected people carry the flu virus with them wherever they travel and spread it in air and on objects they touch via their nasal secretions and bodily discharges.
Personal Protective Equipment or PPE since they are called are equipments created for health professionals to use should they be working in contaminated environments. Nose and mouth respirators or ‘Masks’ are those most widely used. Bird flu masks are very specific regarding the fact that the bird flu virus is microscopic and is also not easily filtered out from the environment using conventional filters.
These masks are designed on the guidelines provided by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Based on filtering efficiency, filters utilized in the Mask fall under 3 categories, namely Type 95, Type 99 and kind 100. The proportions of microscopic (.3 micron wide) particles filtered out by these filters are 95%, 99% and 99.7%, respectively. Even the filters are categorized based upon filter efficiency degradation and are hence defined as, N (non-immune to oil), R (oil resistant) and P (oil proof). Every individual mask is tested in laboratory settings before being approved available for sale. But N95 ones are disposable and should not be cleaned.
The most common ones are N-95 filtering respirators which were approved by NIOSH (also known as as Filtering Facepieces) to be effective drastically cutting down exposure risks to airborne viruses like SARS or Avian Influenza. The utilization of masks is recommended to folks working in high contamination situations, like medical care workers attending to patients, or field workers associated with destroying the infection sources, etc.
Another set of very powerful, protective masks are Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs). They are far better than N-95 masks in offering better protection. These are employed by persons who cannot wear N-95 masks, like people with facial hair. This battery operated mask features a face piece with breathing tube and filters.
Even though any mask is not an assurance against influenza infection, they dramatically cut down the chances of infection from airborne viruses. It remains to get said however, that the capabilities in the masks degrade with time quprnl usage. Aerosols, if found in the working environments, degrade the filters even more. Hence, Facial Mask should not be used in combination with 100% reliance, only as among the preventive tool. More so, you can find guidelines that should be followed while (re)using such PPE. It really is hence clear the best defense will not lie in almost any amount of measures taken but instead inside the knowledge that they may be implemented.